Bug: an electronic device consisting in a miniaturized transmitter that can intercept vocal or telephone conversations and rebroadcast by radio waves. The power is provided by a battery, or a micro-transformer from the net of the places where it is located. The bugs are often used in espionage and in police investigations.
Counter-surveillance: measures used to identify ways and people engaged in the surveillance of a person or a place, includes the adoption of means to identify the presence of electronic devices of surveillance.
Due Diligence: the investigative process used to analyse the status of a company, or of a her branch, including the risk of eventual failure and her future potential, if there are intentions of acquisition or investment. With particular reference to the corporate and organizational structure, to business and market, to critical success factors, to business strategies, to management and administration procedures, to financial data, to fiscal and legal aspects, to potential risks,and so on.
Defensive Investigation: an investigation in which the defender has the right to conduct investigations to search and find evidence in in behalf of his client. The authorized private detective helps the defender in the defensive investigations, as provided in Article 222 of the Criminal Procedure Code. In 1989 became effective the new Criminal Procedure Code and the old inquisitorial process system was replaced by a predominantly adversarial one. The structure of the new process is represented by the defender and the public prosecutor that refer to an impartial judge.
Environmental Reclamation: an instrument and physical research of apparatus that has the aim to collect informations without the knowledge of supervised people.
Industrial Espionage: an activity conducted to obtain illegally industrial and commercial informations from competitors. The crime of espionage corresponds to the Italian law “violation of trade secrets”, and is punished by Articles 621, 622 and 623 of the Penal Code.
GPS locator: a system that provides a spatial positioning with global covering. With the help of a GPS (Global Positioning System) and often of a transmitter GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), the device is able to communicate to the receiver the coordinates of your location. The locator is used in many fields in addition to investigative investigations, transport, security and military (hence derives this technology).
Microcamera: a video capture tool consists of an optics and an electronic key miniaturized. Its small size allows the fitter to hide the equipment in many objects.
Organizational Model ex Legislative Decree 231/01: the Legislative Decree No.231/2001 introduced into the Italian Organization the administrative responsibility of Companies for certain crimes committed by all employees, collaborators and operators, for interest and benefit of the same company, with penalties against the Company. The Legislative Decree 231 gives to the companies the opportunity to get out of this responsibility if they can demonstrate:
a) to used effectively and efficiently a Model of Organization and Management to prevent the crimes listed;
b) to give to a body with independent powers of initiative and control the task to monitor the functioning and the observance of the Model and its updating.
Private Investigation Agency: a private facility that has the aim to find informations or proof that could explain a fact or allow to discover the author. In Italy it is the Local Government authority which grants the authorization. The sources of law are the Articles 134, 135 and 139 of the Consolidated, laws of Public Safety and Articles of the Regulations for Implementation TULPS, 253 ter, 254, 257, 257 bis, 257 quater, 257 sexies, 258, 259, 260, 260 quater.
Private Investigation: an activity with the aim to get to know facts and situations that may protect real rights or interests.
Professional secret: the obligation not to reveal secret informations, learned in the fiduciary relationship. The Professional Secret based on:
ethics bound to respect of person;
ethical as a rule of professional conduct set out in the Code at Chapter III of Title III, with a strong call to an obligation of confidentiality;
legal under Art. 622 of Law 675/96 on privacy and the Law of April 3, 2001 No 119.
Stalking: a set of troublesome and continuous behaviour, consisting of continuous look- out near the house or common areas attended by the victim, together with repeated intrusions into his private life in search of a personal contact by means of shadowing, undesired and obscene phone calls.
Unfair competition: (economic-productive field) use of techniques and means to take advantage of opponents or to cause them damage (for example: the use of names or marks similar to those of other companies, up to counterfeiting, the spread of informations that can damage competitors). Article 2600 of the Civil Code imposes claim for damages for acts of unfair competition made with malice or fault. These acts are identified by art.2598 of the Civil Code. The damage caused by unfair competition is not only the theft of customers, but also acts of denigration that caused a decrease in sales of products. The law of the last decade votes for compensation for equivalent, into its components of the damage and loss of earnings.